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Resolution Test Targets


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Resolution Test Targets

Test Target
Click to Enlarge

An R2L2S1N NBS 1963A Resolution Target Mounted in an XYFM1 Test Target Positioner
TypePhotolithographicBirefringent
DesignChrome-on-GlassBirefringent Pattern
SubstrateSoda Lime GlassN-BK7 Glass
Chrome Thickness0.120 µmN/A
Chrome Optical DensityOD ≥3 at 430 nmN/A
Substrate Thickness0.06" (1.5 mm)0.16" (4.0 mm)
Surface Flatness<5 µmN/A
Line Spacing Tolerancea±1 µmN/A
Line Width Tolerancea±0.5 µmN/A
  • This tolerance is valid for the mask used to create these targets and not necessarily for the targets themselves.

Features

  • Positive and Negative USAF 1951 and NBS 1963A Resolution Test Targets
  • Sector Star Targets
  • Variable Line Grating Targets
  • Combined Resolution and Distortion Target
  • Custom Patterns and Sizes Available

The test targets on this page are typically used to measure the resolution of an imaging system. They consist of reference line patterns with well-defined thicknesses and spacings and are designed to be placed in the same plane as the object being imaged. By identifying the largest set of non-distinguishable lines, one determines the resolving power of a given system. Thorlabs offers test targets with both 1951 USAF and NBS 1963A patterns. Targets are also available with sector star (also known as Siemens star) patterns, a variable line grating, or a combination of patterns for resolution and distortion testing. For more information on each pattern, see the Resolution Targets tab.

Many of our test targets are available with positive and negative patterns. The positive targets consist of low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome patterns plated on clear substrates and are useful for front-lit and general applications. The negative targets use the same chrome coating to cover the substrates, leaving the patterns clear, and work well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Mounting
These test targets can be mounted in one of four of our microscopy slide holders. Our MAX3SLH Fixed Slide Holder provides two spring clips to mount the optic and can be mounted to any of our 3-axis flexure stages. The MAX3SLH is only compatible with test targets greater than or equal to 2" wide and provides a clear aperture of 1", which may cover the chrome pattern on some of the test targets. Thorlabs also offers our XYFM1(/M) Test Target Positioning Mount (see photo to the right) capable of translating a 1" (25.4) to 3" (76.2 mm) wide rectangular target over a 50 mm (1.97") x 30 mm (1.18") area. An adapter on the back of the mount contains five 8-32 (M4) taps for various post-mountable orientations. The XYFM1 uses nylon-tipped setcrews to secure the optic. This will slightly cover the edges of the optic and can, in some instances, cover the chrome pattern on test targets. For users of the MLS203 Microscopy stage we offer slide holders for upright and inverted microscopes. The MLS203P8 Slide Holder for Upright Microscopes is compatible with standard microscope slides and 18 mm x 18 mm x 1.5 mm Calibration Targets. The MLS203P2 Slide Holder for Inverted Microscopes is available for mounting any slides 25 mm to 26.5 mm wide and petri dishes 30 mm to 60 mm in diameter.

Photolithographic Target Manufacturing
Our extensive production capabilities enable us to provide both stock and custom solutions for imaging system calibration and measurements. We use contact photolithography with a mask aligner to define the pattern on the glass substrate. The mask used is calibrated to NIST-traceable standards. Once the pattern is defined, we chemically etch the substrates and clean them in a class 100 cleanroom.

Birefringent Target Manufacturing
The R2L2S1B Birefringent Resolution Target has a pattern that is invisible unless viewed through a pair of crossed polarizers, making it ideal for calibration of polarization-sensitive systems. It is created by using a photo alignment process to set the fast axis of the liquid crystal polymer layer, which is protected by two N-BK7 glass covers. The device is engineered so that the fast axis of the overall target is aligned parallel to the side of the glass covers, whereas the fast axis for the patterned area is aligned 45° to this edge. The entire target has a retardation of 280 ± 20 nm. Additionally, it can display both positive and negative patterns by changing the orientation of the crossed polarizers. If the crossed polarizers are aligned with the sides of the glass covers, the positive image will be formed. If the crossed polarizers are aligned at 45° to the sides of the glass covers, the negative image will be formed.

If your application requires a test target or calibration tool not seen here, please see the Custom Targets tab above or contact Tech Support for assistance. Thorlabs also offers a complete line of reticles for superimposing a reference pattern onto an object.

Targets Selection Guide
Resolution Test TargetsDistortion Test TargetsSlant Edge MTF Resolution Test TargetsCalibration Targets
Resolution Target

1951 USAF Targets

  • Conforms to MIL-S-150A Standard
  • Positive and Negative Targets Available
  • 3" x 3" Targets (10 Groups), 3" x 1" Wheel Pattern Targets (6 Groups), 18 mm x 18 mm Combined Targets (6 Groups), and Ø1" Targets (6 Groups)

Resolution targets have a series of horizontal and vertical lines that are used to determine the resolution of an imaging system. A set of six elements (horizontal and vertical line pairs) are in one group, and ten groups compose the resolution chart. The image to the right shows Elements 2 and 3 of Group -2 on a resolution target.

The spacing between the lines in each element is equal to the thickness of the line itself. When the target is imaged, the resolution of an imaging system can be determined by viewing the clarity of the horizontal and vertical lines. The largest set of non-distinguishable horizontal and vertical lines determines the resolving power of the imaging system. The chart below lists the number of line pairs per millimeter for a given element within a group based on the equation below. With our resolution targets, the maximum resolution is 228.0 line pairs per millimeter, which equates to roughly 4.4 µm per line pair. The 3" x 3" targets feature ten groups from -2 to +7; the 3" x 1" wheel pattern versions feature 9 targets, each with groups +2 to +7; the 18 mm x 18 mm (0.71" x 0.71") combined targets feature six groups from +2 to +7; and the Ø1" targets feature six groups, from +2 to +7.

Test Target Equation

ElementGroup Number
 -2-101234567
10.2500.5001.002.004.008.0016.0032.0064.00128.00
20.2800.5611.122.244.498.9817.9536.071.8144.0
30.3150.6301.262.525.0410.1020.1640.380.6161.0
40.3530.7071.412.835.6611.3022.6245.390.5181.0
50.3970.7931.593.176.3512.7025.3950.8102.0203.0
60.4450.8911.783.567.1314.3028.5057.0114.0228.0

Values are in lp/mm.

NBS1963A
Click to Enlarge

Microscope Image of R2L2S1N Negative Test Target

NBS 1963A Targets

  • Positive, Negative, and Birefringent Targets Available
  • 2" x 2" Size for Dedicated Targets, 1" x 3" Size for Combined Target

NBS 1963A Targets have line sets of five vertical and five horizontal lines. Each line and the space between it and the next line can be thought of as a line pair or a cycle. The resolution that each target is able to test is given by the frequency of the cycles in cycles/mm. On Thorlabs' NBS 1963A targets, each line set is labeled with its frequency. By determining the smallest lines that are distinguishable (highest cycles/mm), you can determine the resolution of an imaging system.

Our standard NBS 1963A targets offer 26 line sets with resolutions scaled from 1.0 cycles/mm to 18.0 cycles/mm. For more rigorous resolution testing, our high-frequency NBS 1963A targets have 48 line sets with frequencies from 1.0 cycles/mm to 228 cycles/mm, and our R1L3S5P combined resolution and distortion test target has 35 line sets with frequencies from 4.5 cycles/mm to 228 cycles/mm. The size of each cycle is simply the reciprocal of the frequency and is given for all available frequencies in the table below. For the individual line width, divide the cycle size in half.

Cycles/mmCycle SizeCycles/mmCycle SizeCycles/mmCycle SizeCycles/mmCycle Size
1.01.00 mm4.00.250 mm16.00.063 mm64.00.016 mm
1.10.909 mm4.50.222 mm18.00.056 mm72.00.014 mm
1.250.800 mm5.00.200 mm20.00.05 mm81.00.012 mm
1.40.714 mm5.60.179 mm23.00.043 mm91.00.011 mm
1.60.625 mm6.30.159 mm25.00.040 mm1020.010 mm
1.80.556 mm7.10.141 mm29.00.034 mm1140.009 mm
2.00.500 mm8.00.125 mm32.00.031 mm1280.008 mm
2.20.455 mm9.00.111 mm36.00.028 mm1440.007 mm
2.50.400 mm10.00.100 mm40.00.025 mm1610.0062 mm
2.80.357 mm11.00.091 mm45.00.022 mm1810.0055 mm
3.20.313 mm12.50.080 mm51.00.020 mm2030.0049 mm
3.60.278 mm14.00.071 mm57.00.018 mm2280.0044 mm
Siemens Star Pattern
Click to Enlarge

R1L1S3P Sector Star Pattern

Sector Star Targets

Sector star targets, also known as Siemens star targets, consist of a number of dark bars that increase in thickness as they radiate out from a shared center. The blank spaces between the bars can themselves be thought of as light bars, and they are designed to be the same thickness as the dark bars at any given radial distance. Theoretically, the bars meet only at the exact middle point of the target. Some sector star targets, including all those sold on this page, have a blank center circle that cuts the bars off before they touch. However, depending on the resolution of the optical system through which the targets are viewed, the bars will appear to touch at some distance from the center. By measuring this distance, the user is able to define the resolution of the optical system.

To calculate the resolution at any given radial distance from the center of the sector star, start by calculating the thickness of a line pair, or one dark bar and one light bar, at that radius. This can be done using the formula for the chord length, given below, where r is the radial distance from the center. The angle Θ is the number of degrees covered by one pair of light and dark bars and is equal to 360° divided by the total number of bars. Once the thickness of the line pair is calculated, the resolution is the reciprocal of the thickness.

chord length equationresolution equation

Thorlabs offers two dedicated sector star targets (R1L1S2P and R1L1S3P) and three targets that include sector stars along with other patterns (R1L3S5P, R1L1S1P, and R1L1S1N). The table below summarizes the sector star pattern on each target.

Item #Pattern TypeSector Star Pattern Outer DiameterCenter Circle DiameterNumber of BarsResolution at Outer DiameterResolution at Center Circle
R1L1S2PPositive10 mm200 µm36 Over 360°1.15 lp/mm57.5 lp/mm
R1L1S3P72 Over 360°2.29 lp/mm115 lp/mm
R1L3S5PPositive2 mm100 µm36 Over 360°5.75 lp/mm115 lp/mm
R1L1S1PPositive2 mm20 µm36 Over 360°5.75 lp/mm575 lp/mm
R1L1S1NNegative
Siemens Star Pattern
Click to Enlarge

Close Up of R1L3S6P Variable Line Grating Pattern

Variable Line Gratings

Line gratings consist of dark, parallel bars with widths that are equal to the distance between them. In any line grating, one dark bar and one blank space compose a line pair. The resolution of an optical system is dependent on its ability to distinguish adjacent line pairs. Thus, the grating resolution is defined by the number of line pairs in a given amount of space and is typically given in line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm). A variable line grating has some number of grating sections, which increase or decrease in resolution as you move from one to the next. By identifying the highest resolution line grating that an optical system is able to resolve, the user determines the resolution of the system.

Thorlabs offers a variable line grating target with a range of resolutions from 1.25 lp/mm to 250 lp/mm. The table below gives the included resolutions along with a conversion of the line pair size.

lp/mmLine Pair Sizelp/mmLine Pair Sizelp/mmLine Pair Size
1.250.80 mm3.850.26 mm16.670.06 mm
1.670.60 mm4.170.24 mm500.02 mm
2.080.48 mm5.00.20 mm1000.01 mm
2.50.40 mm6.670.15 mm2000.005 mm
2.860.35 mm10.00.10 mm2500.004 mm
3.330.30 mm12.50.08 mm--

Custom Test Targets

Thorlabs has extensive design and production capabilities for test targets and reticles. All of our test targets, stage micrometers, distortion grids, and reticles are manufactured in-house at our Thorlabs Quantum Electronics (TQE) division in Jessup, Maryland. In addition to the test targets that are offered from stock, we can provide custom patterns and sizes (circular, square, and rectangular), a sample of which are shown below. Please note that there is a significant tooling cost and lead time for custom test target patterns that makes the purchase of only a few pieces fairly costly. We are also able to provide versions of our stock target patterns with AR coatings on the substrates, higher or lower optical densities, or substrates other than soda lime glass. For more information about our photolithography production, please see our presentation on Thorlabs Semiconductor Manufacturing Capabilities. For a quote on custom test targets, please contact Tech Support.

Custom Reticles

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Posted Comments:
Poster: jlow
Posted Date: 2014-06-03 10:41:23.0
Response from Jeremy at Thorlabs: The grid line width is 5µm for both the 100µm and 50µm grids, and 1.5µm for the 10µm grid.
Poster:
Posted Date: 2014-06-02 12:59:19.84
What is the line width of the grids on the R1L1S1P resolution target?
Poster: pnon
Posted Date: 2012-12-24 11:58:00.0
Response from Pauline at Thorlabs: The masks used for our test targets are calibrated to NIST-traceable standards. We use contact photolithography with a mask aligner to define the pattern on the glass substrate. Once the pattern is defined, we chemically etch the substrates to produce the finished targets. Although similar in performance with the mask, we do not provide NIST traceable certificates. I will contact you shortly to provide information in getting targets with NIST certificates.
Poster: mmarcoux
Posted Date: 2012-12-17 10:05:40.897
Are the R1L3S3P distortion targets N.I.S.T. certified/traceable?
Poster: tcohen
Posted Date: 2012-06-18 10:51:00.0
Response from Tim at Thorlabs: Information on this question was provided for a previous request @400nm below: “The reflectivity of dark pattern on reticle is less than 12% @400nm. For the white pattern, it is just sodium lime glass, so the reflectivity is estimated to be ~ 3.5% @ 400nm ( assuming refractive index is ~ 1.463).” I have contacted you to find out your wavelength and to see if you require more information.
Poster: cooljkpark
Posted Date: 2012-06-15 07:09:36.0
Can you tell me the reflection coefficient of glass and chrome in your resolution target?
Poster: bdada
Posted Date: 2012-06-05 19:09:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs to marctessier: Thank you for participating in our feedback forum. We are developing some new crossed reticles and we have contacted you for a drawing of the custom reticle you need. We have an office in France and the information is included on the web page linked below that lists our offices and distributors world wide: http://www.thorlabs.de/Distributors.cfm
Poster: marctessier
Posted Date: 2012-06-05 17:31:41.0
Hello, I'm working in Rillieux la Pape, near Lyon, in France, and I must find a custom 1" crossed reticle. I've a PDF file showing it. I need only one part. Are you able to supply such good? Do you have a french retailer? Best regards, Marc
Poster: bdada
Posted Date: 2012-02-27 17:34:00.0
Response from Buki to dick.verhaart: For our reticle products, we use chrome with O.D.=>3.0 @430nm. The reflectivity of dark pattern on reticle is less than 12% @400nm. For the white pattern, it is just sodium lime glass, so the reflectivity is estimated to be ~ 3.5% @ 400nm ( assuming refractive index is ~ 1.463). Please contact TechSupport@thorlabs.com if you have any questions.
Poster: bdada
Posted Date: 2012-02-24 18:46:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs to dick.verhaart: Thank you for your feedback. We are looking into this and will contact you shortly with more information and post an update here.
Poster: dick.verhaart
Posted Date: 2012-02-02 05:48:19.0
Can this product (R3L3S1P/N) be used with 405 nm reflective illumination? I find with similar products from other suppliers that the reflection contrast, at this wavelength, between glass and chrome is very small, contrast reversal may occur. Does Thorlabs specific refelctivity of "black"and "white"at 405 nm?
Poster: bdada
Posted Date: 2011-08-01 14:14:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: We measured the smallest grid pattern (10um) of R1L2S2P using a micrometric system, OLYMPUS MX50, and the tolerance of the pattern is < +/-0.1um. Please contact TechSupport@thorlabs.com with additional questions.
Poster: ajh
Posted Date: 2011-07-26 03:05:25.0
Can you provide specifications for the accuracy of the graduations on your stage micrometers, R1L2S2P and R1L2S1P? I assume they are very accurate but when calibrating image scale you do want to know how accurate your calibrator is.
Poster:
Posted Date: 2011-01-31 10:50:15.0
Response from Buki to Paul. Thank you so much for your feedback. We are expanding our selection of reticles and will make them more compatible with our cage system. We will contact you directly to learn how we can better meet your needs.
Poster: paul
Posted Date: 2011-01-24 12:02:31.0
I am surprised (given the sophistication of your product line)you do not stock reticles that can be used with the cage plate systems. I currently buy reticles elsewhere and then mount them in cage plates.
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1951 USAF Resolution Test Targets, Ø1"
Microscope View of the R1DS1N
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of R1DS1N Negative Test Target
  • Ø1" (Ø25.4 mm) Targets for Alignment in Ø1" Lens Tubes
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Conforms to MIL-S-150A Standard
  • Positive and Negative Patterns Available

Thorlabs offers positive and negative Ø1" (Ø25.4 mm) resolution test targets that are made by plating low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome on a soda lime glass substrate. These targets have 6 groups (+2 to +7) with 6 elements, offering a maximum resolution of 228.0 line pairs per millimeter. For more information on the 1951 USAF pattern, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.

The R1DS1P positive target consists of a chrome pattern plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R1DS1N negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
R1DS1P Support Documentation
R1DS1P Customer Inspired! Positive 1951 USAF Test Target, Ø1"
$125.00
Today
R1DS1N Support Documentation
R1DS1N Customer Inspired! Negative 1951 USAF Test Target, Ø1"
$125.00
Today
1951 USAF Wheel Pattern Resolution Test Targets, 3" x 1"
USAF1951
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of R3L1S4N Negative Test Target
  • 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) Targets for Measuring Resolution Across Image
  • Determine the Resolution of an Optical System
  • Conforms to MIL-S-150A Standard
  • Positive and Negative Patterns Available
  • Compatible with our MLS203 Microscope Stages and MLS203P8 and MLS203P2 Slide Holders

Thorlabs offers positive and negative 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) resolution test targets that are made by plating low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome on a soda lime glass substrate. The 3" x 1" wheel pattern targets have 9 USAF 1951 targets, each with 6 groups (+2 to +7), offering a maximum resolution of 228.0 line pairs per millimeter. For more information on the 1951 USAF pattern, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.

The R3L1S4P positive target consists of a chrome pattern plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R3L1S4N negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
R3L1S4N Support Documentation
R3L1S4N Negative 1951 USAF Wheel Pattern Test Target, 3" x 1"
$200.00
Today
R3L1S4P Support Documentation
R3L1S4P Positive 1951 USAF Wheel Pattern Test Target, 3" x 1"
$200.00
3-5 Days
1951 USAF Resolution Test Targets, 3" x 3"
USAF1951
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of R3L3S1N Negative Test Target
  • 3" x 3" (76.2 mm x 76.2 mm) Targets Offer Resolution up to 4.4 µm per Line Pair
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Conforms to MIL-S-150A Standard
  • Positive and Negative Patterns Available

Thorlabs offers positive and negative 3" x 3" (76.2 mm x 76.2 mm) resolution test targets that are made by plating chrome on a soda lime glass substrate. The 3" x 3" targets have 10 groups (-2 to +7) with 6 elements per group, offering a maximum resolution of 228.0 line pairs per millimeter. For more information on the 1951 USAF pattern, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.

The R3L3S1P positive target consists of a chrome pattern plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R3L3S1N negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
R3L3S1N Support Documentation
R3L3S1N Negative 1951 USAF Test Target, 3" x 3"
$160.00
3-5 Days
R3L3S1P Support Documentation
R3L3S1P Positive 1951 USAF Test Target, 3" x 3"
$160.00
Today
NBS 1963A Resolution Targets, 2" x 2"
NBS1963A
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of R2L2S1N Negative Test Target

 

Frequencies (cycles/mm)
  • 1 • 2.2 • 5 • 11
  • 1.1 • 2.5 • 5.6 • 12.5
  • 1.25 • 2.8 • 6.3 • 14
  • 1.4 • 3.2 • 7.1 • 16
  • 1.6 • 3.6 • 8 • 18
  • 1.8 • 4 • 9
  • 2 • 4.5 • 10

See the Resolution Targets tab above for more details on the test patterns.

  • Frequencies from 1 to 18 cycles/mm (See List to the Right)
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) Soda Lime Glass Substrate
  • Positive and Negative Patterns Available

Thorlabs' 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) NBS 1963A resolution test targets offer 26 line sets with frequencies from 1 to 18 cycles/mm, corresponding to cycle sizes from 1.0 m to 55.6 µm (see the table to the right and the Resolution Targets tab for more information). Each set of lines on the pattern contains five horizontal and five vertical lines and is labeled with the frequency of the lines in cycles/mm, as shown in the images to the right. The resolution of an optical system can be determined by identifying the highest frequency line set that the system is able to resolve.

These resolution targets are offered in positive and negative versions. The R2L2S1P positive target consists of a chrome pattern plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R2L2S1N negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
R2L2S1P Support Documentation
R2L2S1P Positive NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2", Up to 18 cycles/mm
$120.00
Today
R2L2S1N Support Documentation
R2L2S1N Negative NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2", Up to 18 cycles/mm
$120.00
Today
High-Frequency NBS 1963A Resolution Test Targets, 2" x 2"

Click for Details

Line sets with frequencies of 32 and 29 cycles/mm on the R2L2S1N1 negative target. The enlarged image shows line sets of 7.1 through 228 cycles/mm.

Click for Details

Line sets with frequencies of 32 and 29 cycles/mm on the R2L2S1P1 positive target. The enlarged image shows line sets of 7.1 through 228 cycles/mm.
  • Frequencies from 1 to 228 cycles/mm (See List Below)
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) Soda Lime Glass Substrate
  • Positive and Negative Patterns Available

Thorlabs' 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) high-frequency NBS 1963A resolution test targets offer 48 line sets with frequencies from 1 to 228 cycles/mm, corresponding to cycle sizes from 1.0 mm to 4.4 µm (see the table below and the Resolution Targets tab for more information). Each set of lines on the pattern contains five horizontal and five vertical lines and is labeled with the frequency of the lines in cycles/mm, as shown in the images to the right. The resolution of an optical system can be determined by identifying the highest frequency line set that the system is able to resolve.

These resolution targets are offered in positive and negative versions. The R2L2S1P1 positive target consists of a chrome pattern plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R2L2S1N1 negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Frequencies (cycles/mm)
  • 1 • 1.6 • 2.5 • 4.0 • 6.3 • 10 • 16 • 25 • 40 • 64 • 102 • 161
  • 1.1 • 1.8 • 2.8 • 4.5 • 7.1 • 11 • 18 • 29 • 45 • 72 • 114 • 181
  • 1.25 • 2.0 • 3.2 • 5.0 • 8.0 • 12.5 • 20 • 32 • 51 • 81 • 128 • 203
  • 1.4 • 2.2 • 3.6 • 5.6 • 9.0 • 14 • 23 • 36 • 57 • 91 • 144 • 228

See the Resolution Targets tab above for more details on the test patterns.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
R2L2S1P1 Support Documentation
R2L2S1P1 Customer Inspired! Positive NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2", Up to 228 cycles/mm
$200.00
Today
R2L2S1N1 Support Documentation
R2L2S1N1 Customer Inspired! Negative NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2", Up to 228 cycles/mm
$200.00
Today
NBS 1963A Birefringent Resolution Targets, 2" x 2"
R2L2S1B Pattern Reference
Click for Details
This image depicts the pattern placement relative to the inscribed rectangles on the front of the test target.
R2L2S1B Positive and Negative Patterns
Click for Details 
Image of R2L2S1B as seen through two crossed wire grid polarizers. The enlarged image shows the positive pattern on the left and negative pattern on the right.
  • Determine Resolution of a Polarizing Optical System
  • Birefringent Target Displays Both Positive and Negative Patterns
  • Frequencies from 1 to 18 cycles/mm (See List Below)
  • 2" × 2" (50.8 mm × 50.8 mm) N-BK7 Glass Substrate

Thorlabs offers a birefringent 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) NBS 1963A resolution test target that is made by sandwiching a birefringent pattern between two N-BK7 glass substrates. The test pattern is only observable if the target is placed between a pair of crossed polarizers (see image to the right).

The target is designed so that it can display both positive and negative patterns by adjusting the orientation of the crossed polarizers relative to the test target. If the cross polarizers are aligned with the sides of the glass covers, the positive image will be formed. If the cross polarizers are aligned at 45° to the sides of the glass covers, the negative image will be formed. Because of its polarization sensitivity, this resolution target is ideal for calibrating and testing the resolution of polarizing microscopes, microscopes with a Nomarski mode, polarization imaging systems, or Mueller Matrix polarimeters.

This target has 26 sets of five horizontal and five vertical lines. Each set of lines is labeled with a number, which refers to the number of cycles per mm. With a maximum frequency of 18 cycles/mm, the smallest cycles are only 0.0556 mm. For more information, please see the Resolution Targets tab above. Since the pattern is only visible through crossed polarizers, the target is inscribed with two rectangles for reference. The image on the far right shows the pattern placement with respect to these inscribed rectangles.

 

Frequencies (cycles/mm)
  • 1 • 1.25 • 1.6 • 2 • 2.5 • 3.2 • 4 • 5 • 6.3 • 8 • 10 • 12.5 • 16
  • 1.1 • 1.4 • 1.8 • 2.2 • 2.8 • 3.6 • 4.5 • 5.6 • 7.1 • 9 • 11 • 14 • 18

See the Resolution Targets tab above for more details on the test patterns.

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R2L2S1B Support Documentation
R2L2S1B Birefringent NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2"
$300.00
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Sector Star Targets, 1" x 1"
Siemens Star Pattern
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R1L1S3P Sector Star Pattern
Siemens Star Pattern
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R1L1S2P Sector Star Pattern
  • 1" x 1" (25.4 mm x 25.4 mm) Positive Sector Star Targets
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Low-Reflectivity, Vacuum-Sputtered Chrome on Soda Lime Glass

Thorlabs offers two 1" (25.4 mm) square targets with positive Sector star (also known as Siemens star) patterns. The R1L1S2P target has 36 bars over 360°. The resolution at the center circle of this target is 57.5 lp/mm. Alternatively, the R1L1S3P target has 72 bars over 360°, and the resolution at the center is 115 lp/mm. Both targets also have a Ø200 µm center circle and are useful for determining the resolution of an optical system by noting how close to the center of the pattern an optical system is able to resolve adjacent bars. For more information about sector star patterns, please see the Resolution Targets tab.

Item # Pattern Outer DiameterCenter Circle Diameter Number of Bars Resolution at Outer DiameterResolution at Center Circle
R1L1S2P 10 mm 200 µm 36 Over 360° 1.15 lp/mm 57.5 lp/mm
R1L1S3P 72 Over 360° 2.30 lp/mm 115 lp/mm
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R1L1S2P Support Documentation
R1L1S2P Customer Inspired! Positive Sector Star Test Target, 1" x 1", 36 Bars
$150.00
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R1L1S3P Support Documentation
R1L1S3P Customer Inspired! Positive Sector Star Test Target, 1" x 1", 72 Bars
$220.00
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Variable Line Grating, 3" x 1"
Siemens Star Pattern
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Close Up of R1L3S6P Variable Line Grating Pattern
  • 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) Variable Line Grating Target
  • Resolutions from 1.25 lp/mm to 250 lp/mm
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Low-Reflectivity, Vacuum-Sputtered Chrome on Soda Lime Glass
  • Compatible with our MLS203 Microscope Stages and MLS203P8 and MLS203P2 Slide Holders

The R1L3S6P Variable Line Grating Target offers 18 sections of line grating with resolutions ranging from 1.25 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) to 250 lp/mm. The table below lists of each available resolution. The resolution of an optical system can be measured by determining the highest resolution grating with lines that the system is able to resolve.

 

Resolutions of Included Line Gratings (lp/mm)
  • 1.25 • 2.08 • 2.86 • 3.85 • 5 • 10 • 16.67 • 50 • 200
  • 1.67 • 2.5 • 3.33 • 4.17 • 6.67 • 12.5 • 26 • 100 • 250
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R1L3S6P Support Documentation
R1L3S6P Customer Inspired! Variable Line Grating Test Target, 3" x 1"
$450.00
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Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Targets, 18 mm x 18 mm
Combined Resolution Test Target
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Microscope Image of the R1S1L1N Negative Test Target
  • Measure Image Distortion, Astigmatism, and Other Aberrations
  • 18 mm (0.71") Square, 1.5 mm Thick Target
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Includes 1951 USAF Pattern, Sector Star, Concentric Circles, Grids, and Ronchi Rulings
  • Positive and Negative Patterns Available
  • Compatible with our MLS203 Microscope Stages and MLS203P8 Slide Holder

Thorlabs offers positive and negative 18 mm x 18 mm x 1.5 mm combined resolution / distortion test targets that are made by plating vacuum-sputtered, low reflectivity chrome with an optical density of ≥3 at 430 nm on a soda lime glass substrate. They are ideal for calibration of imaging systems and microscope stages. They are sized to fit in our MLS203P8 stage slide holder for use with our MLS203 Microscope Stages.

The test targets include a 1951 USAF pattern (Groups 2 - 7), a sector star, concentric circles, grids (100 µm, 50 µm, and 10 µm), and Ronchi rulings (30 - 150 lp/mm). These targets are useful for testing resolution, field distortion, focus errors, and astigmatism. The USAF 1951 targets are useful for measuring imaging resolution. For more information, please see the Resolution Targets tab above. The grids can be used to measure image distortion, while the concentric circles are ideal for identifying focus errors, astigmatism, and other aberrations existing in an imaging system. The Ronchi rulings are excellent for evaluating resolution, field distortion, and parfocal stability.

These resolution targets are offered in positive and negative versions. The R1L1S1P positive target consists of a chrome pattern plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R1L1S1N negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Target FeatureDetailsTarget FeatureDetails
1951 USAF Target Groups 2 - 7 Concentric Circles 10 Circles with Radii from 100 µm to 1000 µm in 100 µm Intervals, Labeled 1 to 10
Grids 20 x 20 Arrays with 100 µm, 50 µm, and 10 µm Pitch Ronchi Rulings 13 Rulings from 30 lp/mma to 150 lp/mm in 10 lp/mm Intervals
Sector Star 36 Bars through 360°, 10 µm Radius Center Circle, and Ten Concentric Circles with Radii from 50 µm to 500 µm in 50 µm Intervals
  • Line Pairs per Millimeter
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R1L1S1P Support Documentation
R1L1S1P Customer Inspired! Positive Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Target, 18 mm Square
$485.00
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R1L1S1N Support Documentation
R1L1S1N Customer Inspired! Negative Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Target, 18 mm Square
$485.00
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Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Targets, 3" x 1"

 

Frequencies of NBS 1963A (cycles/mm)
  • 4.5 • 10 • 23 • 51 • 114
  • 5 • 11 • 25 • 57 • 128
  • 5.6 • 12.5 • 29 • 64 • 144
  • 6.3 • 14 • 32 • 72 • 161
  • 7.1 • 16 • 36 • 81 • 181
  • 8 • 18 • 40 • 91 • 203
  • 9 • 20 • 45 • 102 • 228
  • 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) Target
  • Includes NBS 1963A Pattern, Sector Star, Concentric Circles, Grids, Ronchi Rulings, and More (See Table Below)
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Measure Image Distortion, Astigmatism, and Other Aberrations
  • Compatible with our MLS203 Microscope Stages and MLS203P8 and MLS203P2 Slide Holders

Thorlabs offers positive 3" x 1" x 0.06" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm x 1.5 mm) combined resolution / distortion test targets that are made by plating vacuum-sputtered, low reflectivity chrome with an optical density of ≥3 at 430 nm on a soda lime glass substrate. They are ideal for calibration of imaging systems and microscope stages. They are sized to fit in our MLS203P8 and MLS203P2 stage slide holders for use with our MLS203 Microscope Stages.

The test targets include an NBS 1963A pattern, a sector (Siemens) star, concentric circles, grids, Ronchi rulings, and more (see table below). These targets are useful for testing resolution, field distortion, focus errors, and astigmatism. The NBS 1963A, sector star, and concentric circle targets are useful for measuring imaging resolution. For more information, please see the Resolution Targets tab above. The grids can be used to measure the distortion introduced by an imaging system. The Ronchi rulings are excellent for evaluating resolution, field distortion, and parfocal stability.

Target FeatureDetailsTarget FeatureDetails
NBS 1963A Frequencies from 4.5 cycles/mm to 228 cycles/mm (See List Above) Concentric Circles 10 Circles with Radii from 100 µm to 1000 µm in 100 µm Intervals
Distortion Grid (Squares) 3 Grids: 100 lp/mma, 150 lp/mm, 200 lp/mm Fixed Ronchi Rulings 3 Rulings:100 lp/mm, 150 lp/mm, and 200 lp/mm
Distortion Grid (Dots) 3 Grids: 400 µm Pitch of Ø80 µm Dots,
200 µm Pitch of Ø 40 µm Dots, 100 µm Pitch of Ø20 µm Dots
Variable Ronchi Rulings 20 Rulings (Each 1 mm x 1 mm): 10 lp/mm to 200 lp/mm in 10 lp/mm Intervals
Two-Point Resolution Dots Ø25 µm, Ø20 µm, Ø15 µm, Ø12.5 µm, Ø10 µm, Ø7.5 µm, and Ø5 µm Pinholes Ø25 µm, Ø20 µm, Ø15 µm, Ø12.5 µm, Ø10 µm, Ø7.5 µm, and Ø5 µm
Interdigitated Lines 6.25 lp/mm, 12.5 lp/mm, 25 lp/mm, 50 lp/mm, 100 lp/mm, and 200 lp/mm Micrometers 3 Rulers: 10 mm Scale with 50 µm Divs, 1 mm Scale with 10 µm Divs, and 1mm x 1 mm XY Scale with 50 µm Divs
Sector Star 36 Bars through 360°, 50 µm Radius Center Circle, and Ten Concentric Circles with Radii from 100 µm to 500 µm in 50 µm Intervals
  • The unit lp/mm is line pairs per millimeter.
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R1L3S5P Support Documentation
R1L3S5P Customer Inspired! Positive Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Target, 3" x 1"
$900.00
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