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Polarization-Maintaining Single Mode Optical Fiber


  • 350 nm to 2200 nm Operating Wavelengths
  • Fibers with Ø80 µm or Ø125 µm Cladding
  • “Bow-Tie” or “Panda” Style Configurations

“Bow-Tie” Style PM Fiber

“Panda” Style PM Fiber

Fast Axis

Slow Axis

Related Items


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Custom Fiber Patch Cables  Optical Fiber Manufacturing
Stock Patch Cables Available with these Fibers
Type Fibers Available
Standard FC/PC PM-S405-XP, PM460-HP, PM630-HP,
PM780-HP, PM980-XP, PM1300-XP,
PM1550-XP, PM2000
FC/APC
Hybrid
AR-Coated PM630-HP, PM780-HP, PM980-XP,
PM1550-XP
Reflective-Coated PM980-XP

Features

  • Maintain Polarization State of Input
  • Panda or Bow-Tie Style Fiber
  • Specialized Photosensitive and Bend/Temperature-Insensitive Fibers Available

Thorlabs offers both panda and bow-tie style Single Mode Polarization-Maintaining (PM) fiber. The two styles are named based on the stress rods used. Stress rods run parallel to the fiber's core and apply stress that creates birefringence in the fiber's core, allowing polarization-maintaining operation. Panda stress rods are cylindrical, while bow-tie uses trapezoidal prism stress rods, as shown in the images above. For the average user, these two styles are interchangeable. Panda style fibers have historically been used in telecom applications, as it is easier to maintain uniformity in their cylindrical stress rods over very long lengths when manufacturing.

We also offer specialized PM fibers. Our photosensitive fiber can be exposed to UV light to create a Fiber Bragg Grating, and our bend- and temperature-insensitive PM fiber is ideal for use in fiber optic gyroscopes (FOG).

Panda-Style Fibers, Pure Silica Core, 350 - 680 nm

Item # Wavelength
Range
MFDa NAb Cut-Off
Wavelength
Attenuation Beat Length Birefringence Minimum Bend
Radiusc
Core
Index
Cladding
Index
PM-S350-HP 350 - 460 nm 2.3 µm @ 350 nm 0.12 ≤340 nm - 1.5 mm @ 350 nm 2.5 x 10-4 13 mm Calld Calld
PM-S405-XP 400 - 680 nm 3.3 ± 0.5 µm @ 405 nm
4.6 ± 0.5 µm @ 630 nm
380 ± 20 nm ≤30.0 dB/km @ 488 nm
≤30.0 dB/km @ 630 nm
2.0 mm @ 405 nm 2.5 x 10-4
  • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is specified as a nominal value. It is the beam diameter at the 1/e2 power level in the near field.
  • Numerical Aperture (NA) is specified as a nominal value.
  • Minimum bend radius for mechanical reliability.
  • Please contact our Technical Support Staff to learn more about the refractive index of this fiber, as we are not permitted to publish this information on our website.
Item # Core
Diameter
Cladding
Diameter
Coating
Diameter
Core-Clad
Offset
Coating
Concentricity
Coating
Material
Core
Type
Operating
Temperature Range
Proof Test
Level
Strip
Tool
PM-S350-HP 2.5 µm 125 ± 2 µm 245 ± 15 µm ≤0.5 µm <5 µm UV Cured
Dual Acrylate
Pure Silica -40 to 85 °C ≥200 kpsi (1.4 GN/m2) T06S13
PM-S405-XP 3.0 µm -60 to 85 °C

 

Panda-Style Fibers, 460 - 2200 nm

Item # Wavelength
Range
MFDa NAb Core
Index
Cladding
Index
Cut-Off
Wavelength
Attenuation Beat
Length
Birefringence Normalized
Cross Talk
Minimum
Bend Radiusc
PM460-HP 460 - 700 nm 3.3 ± 0.5 µm @ 515 nm  0.12 Calld Calld 410 ± 40 nm ≤100 dB/km
@ 488 nm
1.3 mm
@ 460 nm
3.5 x 10-4 -  13 mm
PM630-HP 620 - 850 nm 4.5 ± 0.5 µm @ 630 nm Calld Calld 570 ± 50 nm ≤15 dB/km
@ 630 nm
1.8 mm
@ 630 nm
-
PM780-HP 770 - 1100 nm 5.3 ± 1.0 µm @ 850 nm Calld Calld 710 ± 60 nm ≤4 dB/km @
850 nm
2.4 mm
@ 850 nm
≤-40 dB @ 4 m @ 850 nm
PM980-XP 970 - 1550 nm 6.6 ± 0.5 µm @ 980 nm Calld Calld 920 ± 50 nm ≤2.5 dB/km
@ 980 nm
≤2.7 mm
@ 980 nm
- ≤-40 dB @ 4 m
≤-30 dB @ 100 m
(nominal)
PM1300-XP 1270 - 1625 nm 9.3 ± 0.5 µm @ 1300 nm Calld Calld 1210 ± 60 nm ≤1.0 dB/km
@ 1300 nm
≤4.0 mm
@ 1300 nm
-
PM14XX-HP 1390 - 1625 nm 9.8 ± 0.8 µm @ 1450 nm 0.13 Calld Calld 1320 ± 60 nm <1.0 dB/km
@ 1450 nm
≤4.7 mm
@ 1450 nm
-
PM1550-XP 1440 - 1625 nm 10.1 ± 0.4 µm @ 1550 nm 0.125 Calld Calld 1380 ± 60 nm <1.0 dB/km
@ 1550 nm
≤5.0 mm
@ 1550 nm
- ≤-40 dB @ 4 m
@ 1550 nm
PM2000 1850 - 2200 nm 8.0 µm @ 1950 nm 0.20 Calld Calld 1720 ± 80 nm <11.5 dB/km
@ 1950 nm
<22.5 dB/km
@ 2000 nm
5.2 mm
@ 1950 nm
- -
  • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is specified as a nominal value. It is the beam diameter at the 1/e2 power level in the near field.
  • Numerical Aperture (NA) is specified as a nominal value.
  • Minimum bend radius for mechanical reliability.
  • Please contact our Technical Support Staff to learn more about the refractive index of this fiber, as we are not permitted to publish this information on our website.
Item # Core
Diameter
Cladding
Diameter
Coating
Diameter
Core-Clad
Offset
Coating
Concentricity
Coating
Material
Operating
Temperature Range
Proof Test
Level
Strip Tool
PM460-HP 3.0 µm 125 ± 2 µm 245 ± 15 µm ≤0.5 µm <5 µm UV-Cured
Dual Acrylate
-40 to 85 °C ≥200 kpsi (1.4 GN/m2) T06S13
PM630-HP 3.5 µm
PM780-HP 4.5 µm
PM980-XP 5.5 µm 200 kpsi (1.4 GN/m2)
PM1300-XP 8.0 µm ≥200 kpsi (1.4 GN/m2)
PM14XX-HP - 200 kpsi (1.4 GN/m2)
PM1550-XP 8.5 µm ≥200 kpsi (1.4 GN/m2)
PM2000 7.0 µm ≥100 kpsi (0.7 GN/m2)

 

Photosensitive Panda-Style Fiber, 980 nm

Item # Operating
Wavelength
MFD NA Core
Index
Cladding
Index
Cut-Off
Wavelength
Attenuation Beat
Length
Normalized
Cross Talk
PS-PM980 970 - 1550 nm 6.6 ± 1.0 μm @ 980 nm 0.12 Calla Calla 900 ± 70 nm ≤3.0 dB/km @ 980 nm ≤3.5 mm @ 980 nm ≤-40 dB @ 4 m
≤-25 dB @ 100 m (nominal)
  • Please contact our Technical Support Staff to learn more about the refractive index of this fiber, as we are not permitted to publish this information on our website.
Item # Core
Diameter
Cladding
Diameter
Coating
Diameter
Core-Clad
Concentricity
Coating-Clad
Offset
Coating
Material
Operating
Temperature Range
Proof Test
Level
Strip
Tool
PS-PM980 6.0 µm 125 ± 1.0 µm 245 ± 15 µm <0.5 µm ≤5 µm UV Cured
Dual Acrylate
-40 to 85 °C ≥100 kpsi (0.7 GN/m2) T06S13

 

Bow-Tie-Style Fibers, 980 - 1550 nm

Item # Design Wavelengtha MFDb NA Core Indexc Cladding Indexc Cut-Off Wavelength Attenuation Beat Lengthd
HB980T 980 nm 5.3 - 6.4 µm 0.13 - 0.15 980 nm: 1.45647e 980 nm: 1.45068e 870 - 970 nm ≤3 dB/km ≤2 mm
HB1250T 1310 nm 8.1 - 9.9 µm 0.11 - 0.13 1310 nm: 1.45094f 1310 nm: 1.44680f 1100 - 1290 nm <2 dB/km <2 mm
HB1500T 1550 nm 9.6 - 11.7 µm 0.11 - 0.13 1550 nm: 1.44813f 1550 nm: 1.44399f 1290 - 1520 nm <2 dB/km ≤2 mm
  • The Design Wavelength is the wavelength (or wavelengths) at which the fiber is typically used. In practice, the fiber will transmit the TEM00 mode at wavelengths of up to approximately 200 nm longer than the cut-off wavelength.
  • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is specified as a nominal value. It is the beam diameter at the 1/e2 power level in the near field.
  • The index provided is nominal, at nominal operating wavelength.
  • The Beat Length is measured at 633 nm for all HB fiber types. To a first approximation, beat length scales directly with operating wavelength.
  • The index provided is for an NA of 0.13.
  • The index provided is for an NA of 0.11.
Item # Cladding Diameter Coating Diameter Core-Clad Concentricity Coating Material Proof Test Level Strip Tool
HB980T 125 ± 1 µm 245 ± 15 µm ≤0.6 µm Dual-Layer Acrylate 100 or 200 kpsi
(0.7 or 1.4 GN/m2)
(1% or 2%)
T06S13
HB1250T 400 µm ± 5% -
HB1500T -

 

Bend- and Temperature-Insensitive Bow-Tie-Style Fiber, 800 - 1000 nm

Item # Design Wavelengtha MFDb NA Core Indexc Cladding Indexc Cut-Off Wavelength Attenuation Beat Lengthd
HB800G 830 nm 3.7 - 4.9 µm 0.14 - 0.18 830 nm: 1.45954e 830 nm: 1.45282e 660 - 800 nm ≤5 dB/km ≤1.5 mm
  • The fiber will transmit the TEM00 mode at wavelengths up to approximately 200 nm longer than the cutoff wavelength.
  • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is specified as a nominal value. It is the beam diameter at the 1/e2 power level in the near field.
  • The index provided is nominal, at nominal operating wavelength.
  • The Beat Length is measured at 633 nm for all HB fiber types. To a first approximation, beat length scales directly with operating wavelength.
  • The index provided is for an NA of 0.14
Item # Cladding
Diameter
Coating
Diameter
Core-Clad
Concentricity
Coating Material Proof Test Level Strip Tool
HB800G 80 ± 1 µm 165 ±10 µm ≤1 µm  Dual Acrylate 100 or 200 kpsi
(0.7 or 1.4 GN/m2) (1% or 2%)
T04S10

Definition of the Mode Field Diameter

The mode field diameter (MFD) is one measure of the beam width of light propagating in a single mode fiber. It is a function of wavelength, core radius, and the refractive indices of the core and cladding. While much of the light in an optical fiber is trapped within the fiber core, a small fraction propagates in the cladding. For a Gaussian power distribution, the MFD is the diameter where the optical power is reduced to 1/e2 from its peak level. 

Measurement of MFD
There are multiple methods for measuring the MFD, each of which yields slightly different MFD values. We describe one method here to illustrate the considerations that are made. The measurement of MFD can be accomplished by the Variable Aperture Method in the Far Field (VAMFF). An aperture is placed in the far field of the fiber output, and the intensity is measured. As sucessively smaller apertures are placed in the beam, the intensity levels are measured for each aperture; the data can then be plotted as power vs. the sine of the aperture half-angle (or the numerical aperture for an SM fiber).

The MFD is then determined using Petermann's second definition, which is a mathematical model that does not assume a specific shape of power distribution. The MFD in the near field can be determined from this far-field measurement using the Hankel Transform.

MFD Definition

The image above shows the intensity profile of the beam propagated through the fiber overlaid on the fiber itself. The image to the right shows the standard intensity profile of the beam propagated through the fiber with the MFD and core diameter called out.

Laser-Induced Damage in Silica Optical Fibers

The following tutorial details damage mechanisms relevant to unterminated (bare) fiber, terminated optical fiber, and other fiber components from laser light sources. These mechanisms include damage that occurs at the air / glass interface (when free-space coupling or when using connectors) and in the optical fiber itself. A fiber component, such as a bare fiber, patch cable, or fused coupler, may have multiple potential avenues for damage (e.g., connectors, fiber end faces, and the device itself). The maximum power that a fiber can handle will always be limited by the lowest limit of any of these damage mechanisms.

While the damage threshold can be estimated using scaling relations and general rules, absolute damage thresholds in optical fibers are very application dependent and user specific. Users can use this guide to estimate a safe power level that minimizes the risk of damage. Following all appropriate preparation and handling guidelines, users should be able to operate a fiber component up to the specified maximum power level; if no maximum is specified for a component, users should abide by the "practical safe level" described below for safe operation of the component. Factors that can reduce power handling and cause damage to a fiber component include, but are not limited to, misalignment during fiber coupling, contamination of the fiber end face, or imperfections in the fiber itself. For further discussion about an optical fiber’s power handling abilities for a specific application, please contact Thorlabs’ Tech Support.

Power Handling Limitations Imposed by Optical Fiber
Click to Enlarge

Undamaged Fiber End
Power Handling Limitations Imposed by Optical Fiber
Click to Enlarge

Damaged Fiber End

Damage at the Air / Glass Interface

There are several potential damage mechanisms that can occur at the air / glass interface. Light is incident on this interface when free-space coupling or when two fibers are mated using optical connectors. High-intensity light can damage the end face leading to reduced power handling and permanent damage to the fiber. For fibers terminated with optical connectors where the connectors are fixed to the fiber ends using epoxy, the heat generated by high-intensity light can burn the epoxy and leave residues on the fiber facet directly in the beam path.

Estimated Optical Power Densities on Air / Glass Interfacea
Type Theoretical Damage Thresholdb Practical Safe Levelc
CW
(Average Power)
~1 MW/cm2 ~250 kW/cm2
10 ns Pulsed
(Peak Power)
~5 GW/cm2 ~1 GW/cm2
  • All values are specified for unterminated (bare) silica fiber and apply for free space coupling into a clean fiber end face.
  • This is an estimated maximum power density that can be incident on a fiber end face without risking damage. Verification of the performance and reliability of fiber components in the system before operating at high power must be done by the user, as it is highly system dependent.
  • This is the estimated safe optical power density that can be incident on a fiber end face without damaging the fiber under most operating conditions.

Damage Mechanisms on the Bare Fiber End Face

Damage mechanisms on a fiber end face can be modeled similarly to bulk optics, and industry-standard damage thresholds for UV Fused Silica substrates can be applied to silica-based fiber. However, unlike bulk optics, the relevant surface areas and beam diameters involved at the air / glass interface of an optical fiber are very small, particularly for coupling into single mode (SM) fiber. therefore, for a given power density, the power incident on the fiber needs to be lower for a smaller beam diameter.

The table to the right lists two thresholds for optical power densities: a theoretical damage threshold and a "practical safe level". In general, the theoretical damage threshold represents the estimated maximum power density that can be incident on the fiber end face without risking damage with very good fiber end face and coupling conditions. The "practical safe level" power density represents minimal risk of fiber damage. Operating a fiber or component beyond the practical safe level is possible, but users must follow the appropriate handling instructions and verify performance at low powers prior to use.

Calculating the Effective Area for Single Mode and Multimode Fibers
The effective area for single mode (SM) fiber is defined by the mode field diameter (MFD), which is the cross-sectional area through which light propagates in the fiber; this area includes the fiber core and also a portion of the cladding. To achieve good efficiency when coupling into a single mode fiber, the diameter of the input beam must match the MFD of the fiber.

As an example, SM400 single mode fiber has a mode field diameter (MFD) of ~Ø3 µm operating at 400 nm, while the MFD for SMF-28 Ultra single mode fiber operating at 1550 nm is Ø10.5 µm. The effective area for these fibers can be calculated as follows:

SM400 Fiber: Area = Pi x (MFD/2)2 = Pi x (1.5 µm)2 = 7.07 µm= 7.07 x 10-8 cm2

 SMF-28 Ultra Fiber: Area = Pi x (MFD/2)2 = Pi x (5.25 µm)2 = 86.6 µm= 8.66 x 10-7 cm2

To estimate the power level that a fiber facet can handle, the power density is multiplied by the effective area. Please note that this calculation assumes a uniform intensity profile, but most laser beams exhibit a Gaussian-like shape within single mode fiber, resulting in a higher power density at the center of the beam compared to the edges. Therefore, these calculations will slightly overestimate the power corresponding to the damage threshold or the practical safe level. Using the estimated power densities assuming a CW light source, we can determine the corresponding power levels as:

SM400 Fiber: 7.07 x 10-8 cm2 x 1 MW/cm2 = 7.1 x 10-8 MW = 71 mW (Theoretical Damage Threshold)
     7.07 x 10-8 cm2 x 250 kW/cm2 = 1.8 x 10-5 kW = 18 mW (Practical Safe Level)

SMF-28 Ultra Fiber: 8.66 x 10-7 cm2 x 1 MW/cm2 = 8.7 x 10-7 MW = 870 mW (Theoretical Damage Threshold)
           8.66 x 10-7 cm2 x 250 kW/cm2 = 2.1 x 10-4 kW = 210 mW (Practical Safe Level)

The effective area of a multimode (MM) fiber is defined by the core diameter, which is typically far larger than the MFD of an SM fiber. For optimal coupling, Thorlabs recommends focusing a beam to a spot roughly 70 - 80% of the core diameter. The larger effective area of MM fibers lowers the power density on the fiber end face, allowing higher optical powers (typically on the order of kilowatts) to be coupled into multimode fiber without damage.

Damage Mechanisms Related to Ferrule / Connector Termination


Click to Enlarge
Plot showing approximate power handling levels for single mode silica optical fiber with a termination. Each line shows the estimated power level due to a specific damage mechanism. The maximum power handling is limited by the lowest power level from all relevant damage mechanisms (indicated by a solid line).

Fibers terminated with optical connectors have additional power handling considerations. Fiber is typically terminated using epoxy to bond the fiber to a ceramic or steel ferrule. When light is coupled into the fiber through a connector, light that does not enter the core and propagate down the fiber is scattered into the outer layers of the fiber, into the ferrule, and the epoxy used to hold the fiber in the ferrule. If the light is intense enough, it can burn the epoxy, causing it to vaporize and deposit a residue on the face of the connector. This results in localized absorption sites on the fiber end face that reduce coupling efficiency and increase scattering, causing further damage.

For several reasons, epoxy-related damage is dependent on the wavelength. In general, light scatters more strongly at short wavelengths than at longer wavelengths. Misalignment when coupling is also more likely due to the small MFD of short-wavelength SM fiber that also produces more scattered light.

To minimize the risk of burning the epoxy, fiber connectors can be constructed to have an epoxy-free air gap between the optical fiber and ferrule near the fiber end face. Our high-power multimode fiber patch cables use connectors with this design feature.

Determining Power Handling with Multiple Damage Mechanisms

When fiber cables or components have multiple avenues for damage (e.g., fiber patch cables), the maximum power handling is always limited by the lowest damage threshold that is relevant to the fiber component.

As an illustrative example, the graph to the right shows an estimate of the power handling limitations of a single mode fiber patch cable due to damage to the fiber end face and damage via an optical connector. The total power handling of a terminated fiber at a given wavelength is limited by the lower of the two limitations at any given wavelength (indicated by the solid lines). A single mode fiber operating at around 488 nm is primarily limited by damage to the fiber end face (blue solid line), but fibers operating at 1550 nm are limited by damage to the optical connector (red solid line).

In the case of a multimode fiber, the effective mode area is defined by the core diameter, which is larger than the effective mode area for SM fiber. This results in a lower power density on the fiber end face and allows higher optical powers (on the order of kilowatts) to be coupled into the fiber without damage (not shown in graph). However, the damage limit of the ferrule / connector termination remains unchanged and as a result, the maximum power handling for a multimode fiber is limited by the ferrule and connector termination. 

Please note that these are rough estimates of power levels where damage is very unlikely with proper handling and alignment procedures. It is worth noting that optical fibers are frequently used at power levels above those described here. However, these applications typically require expert users and testing at lower powers first to minimize risk of damage. Even still, optical fiber components should be considered a consumable lab supply if used at high power levels.

Intrinsic Damage Threshold

In addition to damage mechanisms at the air / glass interface, optical fibers also display power handling limitations due to damage mechanisms within the optical fiber itself. These limitations will affect all fiber components as they are intrinsic to the fiber itself. Two categories of damage within the fiber are damage from bend losses and damage from photodarkening. 

Bend Losses
Bend losses occur when a fiber is bent to a point where light traveling in the core is incident on the core/cladding interface at an angle higher than the critical angle, making total internal reflection impossible. Under these circumstances, light escapes the fiber, often in a localized area. The light escaping the fiber typically has a high power density, which burns the fiber coating as well as any surrounding furcation tubing.

A special category of optical fiber, called double-clad fiber, can reduce the risk of bend-loss damage by allowing the fiber’s cladding (2nd layer) to also function as a waveguide in addition to the core. By making the critical angle of the cladding/coating interface higher than the critical angle of the core/clad interface, light that escapes the core is loosely confined within the cladding. It will then leak out over a distance of centimeters or meters instead of at one localized spot within the fiber, minimizing the risk of damage. Thorlabs manufactures and sells 0.22 NA double-clad multimode fiber, which boasts very high, megawatt range power handling.

Photodarkening
A second damage mechanism, called photodarkening or solarization, can occur in fibers used with ultraviolet or short-wavelength visible light, particularly those with germanium-doped cores. Fibers used at these wavelengths will experience increased attenuation over time. The mechanism that causes photodarkening is largely unknown, but several fiber designs have been developed to mitigate it. For example, fibers with a very low hydroxyl ion (OH) content have been found to resist photodarkening and using other dopants, such as fluorine, can also reduce photodarkening.

Even with the above strategies in place, all fibers eventually experience photodarkening when used with UV or short-wavelength light, and thus, fibers used at these wavelengths should be considered consumables.

Preparation and Handling of Optical Fibers

General Cleaning and Operation Guidelines
These general cleaning and operation guidelines are recommended for all fiber optic products. Users should still follow specific guidelines for an individual product as outlined in the support documentation or manual. Damage threshold calculations only apply when all appropriate cleaning and handling procedures are followed.

  1. All light sources should be turned off prior to installing or integrating optical fibers (terminated or bare). This ensures that focused beams of light are not incident on fragile parts of the connector or fiber, which can possibly cause damage.

  2. The power-handling capability of an optical fiber is directly linked to the quality of the fiber/connector end face. Always inspect the fiber end prior to connecting the fiber to an optical system. The fiber end face should be clean and clear of dirt and other contaminants that can cause scattering of coupled light. Bare fiber should be cleaved prior to use and users should inspect the fiber end to ensure a good quality cleave is achieved.

  3. If an optical fiber is to be spliced into the optical system, users should first verify that the splice is of good quality at a low optical power prior to high-power use. Poor splice quality may increase light scattering at the splice interface, which can be a source of fiber damage.

  4. Users should use low power when aligning the system and optimizing coupling; this minimizes exposure of other parts of the fiber (other than the core) to light. Damage from scattered light can occur if a high power beam is focused on the cladding, coating, or connector.

Tips for Using Fiber at Higher Optical Power
Optical fibers and fiber components should generally be operated within safe power level limits, but under ideal conditions (very good optical alignment and very clean optical end faces), the power handling of a fiber component may be increased. Users must verify the performance and stability of a fiber component within their system prior to increasing input or output power and follow all necessary safety and operation instructions. The tips below are useful suggestions when considering increasing optical power in an optical fiber or component.

  1. Splicing a fiber component into a system using a fiber splicer can increase power handling as it minimizes possibility of air/fiber interface damage. Users should follow all appropriate guidelines to prepare and make a high-quality fiber splice. Poor splices can lead to scattering or regions of highly localized heat at the splice interface that can damage the fiber.

  2. After connecting the fiber or component, the system should be tested and aligned using a light source at low power. The system power can be ramped up slowly to the desired output power while periodically verifying all components are properly aligned and that coupling efficiency is not changing with respect to optical launch power.

  3. Bend losses that result from sharply bending a fiber can cause light to leak from the fiber in the stressed area. When operating at high power, the localized heating that can occur when a large amount of light escapes a small localized area (the stressed region) can damage the fiber. Avoid disturbing or accidently bending fibers during operation to minimize bend losses.

  4. Users should always choose the appropriate optical fiber for a given application. For example, large-mode-area fibers are a good alternative to standard single mode fibers in high-power applications as they provide good beam quality with a larger MFD, decreasing the power density on the air/fiber interface.

  5. Step-index silica single mode fibers are normally not used for ultraviolet light or high-peak-power pulsed applications due to the high spatial power densities associated with these applications.


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Posted Comments:
Poster:giulia.sinnl93
Posted Date:2017-06-27 12:51:08.15
Please send refractive index and dispersion data for PM1550-XP fiber. Thank you
Poster:nbayconich
Posted Date:2017-06-28 02:30:27.0
Thank you for contacting Thorlabs. I will reach out to you directly with the PM1550-XP dispersion data.
Poster:swcho6234
Posted Date:2016-07-26 13:17:27.443
Could you tell me where the zero dispersion wavelength of PM-S405-XP is? And we also want the dispersion curve data. Thank you.
Poster:swcho6234
Posted Date:2016-04-07 11:39:28.497
Could you tell me how much is the threshold of PM460-HP which has 3.3 um of MFD. We use pulsed laser with 1ns pulse duration.Please represent both the theroical and practical values.
Poster:besembeson
Posted Date:2016-04-07 10:41:23.0
Response from Bweh at Thorlabs USA: For 10ns pulses, we specify 5GW/cm^2 and 1GW/cm^2 for theoretical and practical peak power densities. For 1ns pulses, these will be reduced by a factor of 0.31 (sqrt(1ns/10ns)), which becomes 1.5GW/cm^2 theoretical and 0.3GW/cm^2 practical.
Poster:ekocabas
Posted Date:2015-08-28 02:24:08.193
Could you send me the dispersion data for PM1300-XP, particularly around 1550 nm? Also, what are the core/cladding diameters? Thank you.
Poster:besembeson
Posted Date:2015-09-29 09:39:43.0
Response from Bweh at Thorlabs USA: We don't have dispersion data for the PM1300-XP at 1550nm. We have the core and cladding diameters on our website as follows: core - 8um, cladding - 125um.
Poster:mchen
Posted Date:2015-07-29 14:55:08.81
Can you please tell me the dispersion of PM2000? Thank you, Mike
Poster:besembeson
Posted Date:2015-09-23 07:45:18.0
Response from Bweh at Thorlabs USA: We don't have the dispersion data for the PM2000 yet.
Poster:mchen
Posted Date:2015-05-14 11:21:04.923
Can you please provide me the dispersion curves of PM2000 and SM2000 fibers, respectively? Thank you, Mike
Poster:besembeson
Posted Date:2015-08-28 11:19:16.0
Response from Bweh at Thorlabs USA: We don't have dispersion data yet for these fibers. We will provide you with a simulated value at 2um for the SM2000 via email.
Poster:sebastian.schweyer
Posted Date:2014-05-22 04:56:08.41
Could you send me please the dispersion curves for different NAs and Cut-Off Wavelengths for following fibers: - PM1300-HP - PM14XX-HP - PM1550-XP D Hereby most important would be the dispersion and dispersion slope @1560 nm. Cheers !
Poster:pbui
Posted Date:2014-06-12 03:41:34.0
We will contact you directly to provide the dispersion graphs for these fibers.
Poster:scottie730318
Posted Date:2014-04-27 23:15:17.073
We are interesting in PM fiber PM980-XP). Our ring cavity is designed to short cavity length. Therefore, can you provide me the GVD(ps/nm*km) of PM fiber around 1.06 um??Thank you very much
Poster:pbui
Posted Date:2014-05-01 04:12:59.0
We will contact you directly to provide the dispersion data for the operating wavelengths of this fiber.
Poster:tcohen
Posted Date:2012-08-15 10:07:00.0
Response from Tim at Thorlabs: Thank you for your inquiry. We are accumulating data on the dispersion at this wavelength and I will contact you to keep you updated with the results.
Poster:leaf
Posted Date:2012-08-14 08:45:08.0
Please send me the dispersion data for PM780-HP and PM980-XP around 1060 nm. Thanks!
Poster:Mojtaba.Mansourabadi
Posted Date:2012-07-14 12:00:55.0
Hi, I need the following parameters: 1- Core Diameter 2- Core Refractive Index 3- Cladding Refractive Index
Poster:tcohen
Posted Date:2012-06-19 09:55:00.0
Response from Tim at Thorlabs: Thank you for contacting us! I have sent you the dispersion data.
Poster:andreas.bollmann
Posted Date:2012-06-19 15:05:59.0
Hi, can you give me the dispersion curve of PM980-XP around 1064 nm? Best regards.
Poster:tcohen
Posted Date:2012-04-09 12:17:00.0
Response from Tim at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback! I have contacted you with some dispersion data.
Poster:yequnz
Posted Date:2012-04-06 14:36:31.0
I want to the chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion at the wavelength around 700nm. Thanks.
Poster:bdada
Posted Date:2011-10-20 14:26:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback. We are working on adding more information to our website. We have contacted you with the dispersion curve for the 780-HP fiber. Since the fundamental waveguide design is the same, the data should provide a good estimate.
Poster:kristian.altmann
Posted Date:2011-10-12 11:18:33.0
Hi, I just want to ask about the dispersion curve for the PM780-HP. Best Regards
Poster:jjurado
Posted Date:2011-07-14 09:32:00.0
Response from Javier at Thorlabs to delosrey: I will contact you directly with a dispersion curve for the PM780-HP fiber in the 600-1000 nm range.
Poster:delosrey
Posted Date:2011-07-13 15:14:23.0
Hi, I just want to ask about the dispersion curve for the PM780-HP. I plan to use this in my set-up but I want to make sure that I could still recover the 65fm pulse width of my input beam.
Poster:bdada
Posted Date:2011-06-24 12:41:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback. We apologize for the inconsistency. The specification sheet is correct, so the cut off wavelength for the PM460-HP is 410 +/- 40nm. We will update the specification tables on the web page.
Poster:
Posted Date:2011-06-23 19:30:04.0
Spec sheet shows 410 ± 40 nm for the PM460-HPs cutoff wavelength, but the web consistently shows 420 ± 30 nm. Which is correct?
Poster:tor
Posted Date:2011-01-10 15:15:06.0
Response from Tor at Thorlabs to zyan: Thank you for your request. The cut-off is defined in this context as a lower-bound. PM460-HP, PM-S630-HP, and PM630-HP work for 632.8-nm input. Panda-style fibers have historically been used in telecom applications, as it is easier to maintain uniformity in their cylindrical stress rods over very long lengths when manufacturing. The average user can use both types interchangeably. I will contact you for further details so I can generate a formal quotation.
Poster:tor
Posted Date:2011-01-10 14:50:52.0
Response from Tor at Thorlabs to Keli: Thank you for your interest in our PM fiber. The HP designation does not refer to power-handling capabilities of the fiber. The typical guideline for the damage threshold of SM fiber is 10 mW/µm² or (1 MW/cm²) for CW and 1 GW/cm² for 10-ns pulses.
Poster:zyan
Posted Date:2010-12-14 13:53:01.0
Hi, How do you define cut-off, it looks that the cut-off mismatches the designed frequency. For example, can I use 632.8 nm wavelength for this fiber. Secondly, do you have any connectorized fiber. How can we access to this service. Obvious it requires much sophisticated equipment to do FC/PC connector with such short wavelength and small core diameter ones. How can we link this request to the fibers. Third, any reason for Bow-Tie versus Panda? Thank, ZY
Poster:keli
Posted Date:2010-12-13 11:53:04.0
What dose HP in the item number mean? What is its highest power tolerance? Thanks.
Poster:tor
Posted Date:2010-12-10 08:23:14.0
Response from Tor at Thorlabs to Mirko: We are happy to provide MFD data for specific production runs upon request. Nufern employs the same MFD measurement technique as described in this document: www.corning.com/WorkArea/downloadasset.aspx?id=7909 . I will contact you directly to help you find specific MFD data.
Poster:mirko.uebernickel
Posted Date:2010-12-09 03:30:14.0
Dir sir or madam, please give me some detailed information about the defintion of the mode-field-diameter of the fiber pm980. The exact diameter definition is needed for calculations with this product. Best regards. Mirko Uebernickel
Poster:Javier
Posted Date:2010-06-17 09:54:22.0
Response from Javier at Thorlabs to c.j.lee: the variation in the polarization axis orientation is most likely due to a mechanical shift of your setup over time, rather than to phenomena in the fiber itself. I will contact you directly to discuss this further.
Poster:c.j.lee
Posted Date:2010-06-17 04:23:38.0
We are currently using your Panda style PM fibres in a polarization setup. We have noticed that over time, the orientation of the polarization axis of the fibre varies by about 3°. Is this expected, or is it more likely that our polarization state on the input is not what we think it is?
Poster:Adam
Posted Date:2010-04-26 14:59:02.0
A response from Adam at Thorlabs to yekaterinala: We can offer an extra 2% of the price of the HB980T and the PM980-XP when 300 or 500m are orders. I will contact you directly to see if you are interested in a quotation.
Poster:yekaterinala
Posted Date:2010-04-25 23:22:53.0
Please let me know meter price for HB980T for 300m and 500m Thanks Yekaterina yekaterinala@mvphotonics.com
Poster:yekaterinala
Posted Date:2010-04-25 23:18:42.0
Hi, Please let me know price per meter for PM980-XP for 300m and 500m length. Thanks, Yekaterina yekaterinala@mvphotonics.com
Poster:Laurie
Posted Date:2009-01-28 16:36:30.0
Response from Laurie at Thorlabs to chan0753: Thank you for your interest in our PM single mode fibers. Currently, we do not have a panda-style, PM, single mode fiber for the entire visible range. I will have an applications engineer contact you directly to discuss your specific application and determine if we have an appropriate fiber for you.
Poster:chan0753
Posted Date:2009-01-28 10:35:52.0
Hi, I am interested in the polarization maintaining single-mode fibers (Panda style, pure silica core) for the range in 400nm -700nm. Do you mind giving me the more detailed absorption spectra of those fibers to help me decide which one to get? Thanks, Wing
Poster:Tyler
Posted Date:2009-01-15 08:31:45.0
A response from Tyler at Thorlabs to guuptasengupta: Thank you for your feedback. Thorlabs is dedicated to providing a comprehensive line of photonics components and instruments. If you have any product needs that we currently don’t fill, please let us know as we are always looking for ways to improve our product line so that scientists can spend more time in the lab and less time looking for the proper equipment.
Poster:guuptasengupta
Posted Date:2009-01-15 01:27:54.0
it is the only supplier and proved to be the genuine supplyer of the research based equipments
Poster:Laurie
Posted Date:2009-01-05 16:34:23.0
Response from Laurie at Thorlabs to msaffman: Thank you for your interest in our single mode PM fiber. Currently, we do not offer as a stock item any PM fibers for the 320 nm wavelength. However, if you provide us with additional specifications (length, NA, etc.), we will look into the possibility of obtaining this fiber as a special.
Poster:msaffman
Posted Date:2009-01-05 12:49:49.0
Can you provide single mode polarization maintaining fiber for 320 nm wavelength light? I am looking for this fiber in lengths of at least 50 cm. Thanks, Mark Saffman
Poster:Tyler
Posted Date:2008-09-12 14:00:03.0
A response from Tyler at Thorlabs to david.rahmlow: The nominal NA of the FS-LS-4616 fiber is 0.13. Thank you for your interest in our fiber products.
Poster:david.rahmlow
Posted Date:2008-09-11 14:18:37.0
Whats the NA of the FS-LS-4616 fiber? Thanks- --- Dave

PM Fiber, Panda Style, Pure Silica Core, 350 - 680 nm

Panda PM Fiber Cross Section
Click for Details

Panda-Style PM Fiber Cross Section
  • Pure Silica Core for Resistance to Photodarkening
  • Panda-Style Stress Members
  • Operating Wavelength Ranges Span from 350 to 680 nm

These pure silica core polarization-maintaining fibers are designed for wavelengths from 350 to 680 nm. Their pure silica core provides protection from photodarkening, which makes them ideal for use at short wavelengths. These fibers use Panda-type stress rods for polarization-maintaining operation.

Item # Wavelength
Range
MFDa NAb Core
Index
Cladding
Index
Cut-Off Attenuation Beat
Length
Cladding
Diameter
Coating
Diameter
Minimum
Bend Radiusc
Strip
Tool
PM-S350-HP 350 - 460 nm 2.3 µm
@ 350 nm
0.12 Calld Calld ≤340 nm - 1.5 mm
@ 350 nm
125 ± 2 µm 245 ± 15 µm 13 mm T06S13
PM-S405-XP 400 - 680 nm 3.3 ± 0.5 µm
@ 405 nm
4.6 ± 0.5 µm
@ 630 nm
380 ± 20 nm ≤30.0 dB/km
@ 488 nm
≤30.0 dB/km
@ 630 nm
2.0 mm
@ 405 nm
  • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is specified as a nominal value. It is the beam diameter at the 1/e2 power level in the near field. See the MFD Definition for more information.
  • Numerical Aperture (NA) is specified as a nominal value.
  • Minimum bend radius for mechanical reliability.
  • Please contact our Technical Support Staff to learn more about the refractive index of this fiber, as we are not permitted to publish this information on our website.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
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PM-S350-HP Support Documentation
PM-S350-HP350 - 460 nm PM Fiber w/ Pure Silica Core, 2.3 µm MFD
$33.75
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PM-S405-XP Support Documentation
PM-S405-XP400 - 680 nm PM Fiber w/ Pure Silica Core, 3.5 - 4.6 µm MFD
$30.75
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PM Fiber, Panda Style, 460 - 2200 nm

Panda PM Fiber Cross Section
Click for Details

Panda-Style PM Fiber Cross Section
  • Operating Wavelength Ranges Span from 460 to 2200 nm
  • Panda-Style Stress Members

These polarization-maintaining fibers are designed for single-mode transmission in the visible, NIR, and telecom wavelength ranges. They have Panda-type stress rods for polarization-maintaining operation.

Item # Wavelength
Range
MFDa NAb Core
Index
Cladding
Index
Cut-Off Attenuation Beat
Length
Cladding
Diameter
Coating
Diameter
Minimum
Bend Radiusc
Strip
Tool
PM460-HP 460 - 700 nm 3.3 ± 0.5 µm
@ 515 nm
0.12 Calld Calld 410 ± 40 nm ≤100 dB/km
@ 488 nm
1.3 mm
@ 460 nm
125 ± 2 µm 245 ± 15 µm 13 mm T06S13
PM630-HP 620 - 850 nm 4.5 ± 0.5 µm
@ 630 nm
570 ± 50 nm ≤15 dB/km
@ 630 nm
1.8 mm
@ 630 nm
PM780-HP 770 - 1100 nm 5.3 ± 1.0 µm
@ 850 nm
710 ± 60 nm ≤4 dB/km
@ 850 nm
2.4 mm
@ 850 nm
PM980-XP 970 - 1550 nm 6.6 ± 0.5 µm
@ 980 nm
920 ± 50 nm ≤2.5 dB/km
@ 980 nm
≤2.7 mm
@ 980 nm
PM1300-XP 1270 - 1625 nm 9.3 ± 0.5 µm
@ 1300 nm
1210 ± 60 nm ≤1.0 dB/km
@ 1300 nm
≤4.0 mm
@ 1300 nm
PM14XX-HP 1390 - 1625 nm 9.8 ± 0.8 µm
@ 1450 nm
0.13 1320 ± 60 nm <1.0 dB/km
@ 1450 nm
≤4.7 mm
@ 1450 nm
PM1550-XP 1440 - 1625 nm 10.1 ± 0.4 µm
@ 1550 nm
0.125 1380 ± 60 nm <1.0 dB/km
@ 1550 nm
≤5.0 mm
@ 1550 nm
PM2000 1850 - 2200 nm 8.0 µm
@ 1950 nm
0.20 1720 ± 80 nm ≤11.5 dB/km
@ 1950 nm
≤22.5 dB/km
@ 2000 nm
5.2 mm
@ 1950 nm
  • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is specified as a nominal value. It is the beam diameter at the 1/e2 power level in the near field. See the MFD Definition for more information.
  • Numerical Aperture (NA) is specified as a nominal value.
  • Minimum bend radius for mechanical reliability.
  • Please contact our Technical Support Staff to learn more about the refractive index of this fiber, as we are not permitted to publish this information on our website.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
PM460-HP Support Documentation
PM460-HP460 - 700 nm PM Fiber, 3.3 µm MFD
$28.00
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PM630-HP Support Documentation
PM630-HP620 - 850 nm PM Fiber, 4.5 µm MFD
$20.00
Per Meter
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PM780-HP Support Documentation
PM780-HP770 - 1100 nm PM Fiber, 5.3 µm MFD
$20.00
Per Meter
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PM980-XP Support Documentation
PM980-XP970 - 1550 nm PM Fiber, 6.6 µm MFD
$25.00
Per Meter
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PM1300-XP Support Documentation
PM1300-XP1270 - 1625 nm PM Fiber, 9.3 µm MFD
$25.00
Per Meter
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PM14XX-HP Support Documentation
PM14XX-HP1390 - 1625 nm PM Fiber, 9.8 µm MFD
$19.60
Per Meter
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PM1550-XP Support Documentation
PM1550-XP1440 - 1625 nm PM Fiber, 10.1 µm MFD
$25.00
Per Meter
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PM2000 Support Documentation
PM2000Customer Inspired!1850 - 2200 nm PM Fiber, 8.0 µm MFD
$42.75
Per Meter
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Photosensitive PM Fiber, Panda-Style, 970 - 1550 nm

Panda PM Fiber Cross Section
Click for Details

Panda-Style PM Fiber Cross Section

Applications

  • Grating-Based Pump Diode Pigtails
  • Sensors
  • Multiplexers

Features

  • Typical PM Fiber Performance with Added Photosensitivity
  • Panda-Style Stress Members
  • High Photosensitivity
  • High Lot-to-Lot Uniformity

PS-PM980 photosensitive 970 - 1550 nm polarization maintaining fiber is designed to perform all functions of a 980 nm PM fiber but with enhanced photosensitivity for fabrication of gratings. Portions of this fiber that are exposed to UV light will have their refractive index changed, thus allowing the construction of a Fiber Bragg Grating or other types of devices with periodic changes in refractive index.

This fiber is designed for use in 980 nm pump diodes, couplers and multiplexers. Using one fiber that provides excellent photosensitivity, as well as polarization maintaining attributes, substantially reduces writing time thus lowering costs.

Item #Operating
Wavelength
MFDNACore IndexCladding IndexCut-Off
Wavelength
AttenuationCladding
Diameter
Coating
Diameter
Strip Tool
PS-PM980 970 - 1550 nm 6.6 ± 1.0 µm @ 980 nm 0.12 Calla Calla 900 ± 70 nm ≤3.0 dB/km @ 980 nm 125 ± 1.0 µm 245 ± 15 µm T06S13
    • Please contact our Technical Support Staff to learn more about the refractive index of this fiber, as we are not permitted to publish this information on our website.
    Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
    +1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
    PS-PM980 Support Documentation
    PS-PM980970 - 1550 nm PM Photosensitive Fiber, 6.6 µm MFD
    $31.50
    Per Meter
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    PM Fiber, Bow-Tie Style, 980 - 1550 nm

    Bow-Tie PM Fiber Cross Section
    Click for Details

    Bow-Tie-Style PM Fiber Cross Section
    • Operating Wavelength Ranges Span from 980 to 1550 nm
    • Bow-Tie-Style Stress Members

    These polarization-maintaining fibers use bow-tie stress members. They are commonly used for sensor applications, polarization multiplexing of EDFA lasers, and laser pigtailing.

    Item # Design
    Wavelengtha
    MFDb NA Core
    Indexc
    Cladding
    Indexc
    Cut-Off Attenuationd Beat
    Lengthe
    Cladding
    Diameter
    Coating
    Diameter
    Strip
    Tool
    HB980T 980 nm 5.3 - 6.4 µm 0.13 - 0.15 980 nm: 1.45647f 980 nm: 1.45068f 870 - 970 nm ≤3 dB/km ≤2 mm 125 ± 1 µm 245 ± 15 µm T06S13
    HB1250T 1310 nm 8.1 - 9.9 µm 0.11 - 0.13 1310 nm: 1.45094g 1310 nm: 1.44680g 1100 - 1290 nm <2 dB/km <2 mm 125 ± 1 µm 400 µm ± 5% N/A
    HB1500T 1550 nm 9.6 - 11.7 µm 0.11 - 0.13 1550 nm: 1.44813g 1550 nm: 1.44399g 1290 - 1520 nm <2 dB/km ≤2 mm 125 ± 1 µm 400 µm ± 5% N/A
    • The design wavelength is the wavelength at which the fiber is typically used. In practice, the fiber will transmit the TEM00 mode at wavelengths up to approximately 200 nm longer than the cutoff wavelength.
    • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is specified as a nominal value. It is the beam diameter at the 1/e2 power level in the near field. See the MFD Definition for more information.
    • The index provided is nominal, at nominal operating wavelength.
    • Attenuation is a worst-case value, quoted for the shortest design wavelength.
    • The Beat Length is measured at 633 nm for all HB fiber types. To a first approximation, beat length scales directly with operating wavelength.
    • The index of refraction provided is for an NA of 0.13.
    • The index of refraction provided is for an NA of 0.11.
    Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
    +1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
    HB980T Support Documentation
    HB980TDesign Wavelength: 980 nm, Telecom Optimized PM Fiber, 5.3 - 6.4 µm MFD
    $19.20
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    HB1250T Support Documentation
    HB1250TDesign Wavelength: 1310 nm, Telecom Optimized PM Fiber, 8.1 - 9.9 µm MFD
    $19.20
    Per Meter
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    HB1500T Support Documentation
    HB1500TDesign Wavelength: 1550 nm, Telecom Optimized PM Fiber, 9.6 - 11.7 µm MFD
    $19.20
    Per Meter
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    Bend- and Temperature-Insensitive PM Fiber, Bow-Tie Style, 800 - 1000 nm

    Bow-Tie PM Fiber Cross Section
    Click for Details

    Bow-Tie-Style PM Fiber Cross Section
    • Optimized for Bend- and Temperature-Resistance Performance
    • Ideal for Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG) Applications
    • Bow-Tie-Style Stress Members

    This polarization-maintaining fiber is optimized for fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) applications. It is designed for optimal performance over a wide temperature range and with a small coil radius. Extinction ratios of 29.5 dB at -40 °C and 28.5 dB at -60 °C are typical for this fiber.

    Item # Design
    Wavelengtha
    MFDb NA Core Indexc Cladding Indexc Cut-Off Attenuationd Beat
    Lengthe
    Cladding
    Diameter
    Coating
    Diameter
    Strip
    Tool
    HB800G 830 nm 3.7 - 4.9 µm 0.14 - 0.18 830 nm: 1.45954f 830 nm: 1.45282f 660 - 800 nm ≤5 dB/km ≤1.5 mm 80 ± 1 µm 165 ± 10 µm T04S10
    • The design wavelength is the wavelength at which the fiber is typically used. In practice, the fiber will transmit the TEM00 mode at wavelengths up to approximately 200 nm longer than the cutoff wavelength.
    • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is specified as a nominal value. It is the beam diameter at the 1/e2 power level in the near field. See the MFD Definition for more information.
    • The index provided is nominal, at nominal operating wavelength.
    • Attenuation is a worst-case value, quoted for the shortest design wavelength.
    • The Beat Length is measured at 633 nm for all HB fiber types. To a first approximation, beat length scales directly with operating wavelength.
    • The index of refraction provided is for an NA of 0.14.
    Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
    +1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
    HB800G Support Documentation
    HB800GDesign Wavelength: 830 nm, FOG Optimized PM Fiber, 3.7 - 4.9 µm MFD
    $19.20
    Per Meter
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