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Coupling Prisms: Rutile (TiO₂) & Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG)


  • High Index of Refraction Prisms
  • Used to Couple Light into Films
  • Choose from TiO2 or GGG

ADG-6

ADT-6

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Item #  ADT-6  ADG-6
Material Rutile Gadolinium Gallium
Garnett
Index of Refractiona,b
Sellmeier Equationa,b Icon
Icon
Index of Refraction for Select Wavelengths
λ no ne n
633 nm 2.583 2.874 1.965
830 nm 2.516 2.781 1.951
1064 nm 2.482 2.734 1.944
1550 nm 2.449 2.691 1.936
  • Borne, Adrien, et al. "Refractive Indices, Phase-Matching Directions and Third Order Nonlinear Coefficients of Rutile TiO2 from Third Harmonic Generation." Optical Materials Express, vol. 2, no. 12, 2012, p. 1797.
  • Wood, Darwin L., and Kurt Nassau. "Optical Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet." Applied Optics, vol. 29, no. 25, 1990, p. 3704.

Features

  • Two Types Available: Rutile (TiO2) or Gadolinium Gallium Garnett (GGG)
  • Surface Flatness: λ/4 (Rutile Prism), λ/8 (GGG Prism)
  • Surface Quality: 40-20 Scratch-Dig

Prisms characterized by a high index of refraction are commonly used to couple light into films, thereby enabling one to measure the film thickness and index of refraction. A rutile (TiO2) crystal prism should be used if the index of refraction of the film is greater than 1.8 whereas a gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) prism should be used if it is less than 1.8. The prism faces are polished to 1/4-wave flatness for the rutile prism (ADT-6) and 1/8-wave flatness for the GGG prism (ADG-6). The 90° corner is sharp (not beveled) and the base measures 6 mm x 6 mm. Please note that prism coupling can cause scratching of the prism faces and chipping of the prism's sharp edge.

ADT-6 Rutile Coupling Prism
Optical Axis of ADT-6 Rutile Coupling Prism
Click to Enlarge
Optic Cleaning Tutorial
Zemax Files
Click on the red Document icon next to the item numbers below to access the Zemax file download. Our entire Zemax Catalog is also available.

Selection Guide for Prisms

Thorlabs offers a wide variety of prisms, which can be used to reflect, invert, rotate, disperse, steer, and collimate light. For prisms and substrates not listed below, please contact Tech Support.

Beam Steering Prisms

Prism Material Deviation Invert Reverse or Rotate Illustration Applications
Right Angle Prisms N-BK7, UV Fused Silica, Calcium Fluoride, or Zinc Selenide 90° 90° No  1

90° reflector used in optical systems such as telescopes and periscopes.

180° 180° No  1

180° reflector, independent of entrance beam angle.

Acts as a non-reversing mirror and can be used in binocular configurations.

Unmounted Retroreflectors
and
Mounted Retroreflectors

N-BK7 180° 180° No  Retroreflector

180° reflector, independent of entrance beam angle.

Beam alignment and beam delivery. Substitute for mirror in applications where orientation is difficult to control.

Unmounted Penta Prisms
and
Mounted Penta Prisms
N-BK7 90° No No  1

90° reflector, without inversion or reversal of the beam profile.

Can be used for alignment and optical tooling.

Roof Prisms N-BK7 90° 90° 180o Rotation  1

90° reflector, inverted and rotated (deflected left to right and top to bottom).

Can be used for alignment and optical tooling.

Unmounted Dove Prisms
and
Mounted Dove Prisms
N-BK7 No 180° 2x Prism Rotation  1

Dove prisms may invert, reverse, or rotate an image based on which face the light is incident on.

Prism in a beam rotator orientation.

180° 180° No  1

Prism acts as a non-reversing mirror.

Same properties as a retroreflector or right angle (180° orientation) prism in an optical setup.

Wedge Prisms N-BK7 Models Available from 2° to 10° No No  1

Beam steering applications.

By rotating one wedged prism, light can be steered to trace the circle defined by 2 times the specified deviation angle.

No No  Wedge Prism Pair

Variable beam steering applications.

When both wedges are rotated, the beam can be moved anywhere within the circle defined by 4 times the specified deviation angle.

Coupling Prisms Rutile (TiO2) or GGG Variablea No No  Coupling Prism

High index of refraction substrate used to couple light into films.

Rutile used for nfilm > 1.8

GGG used for nfilm < 1.8

  • Depends on Angle of Incidence and Index of Refraction


Dispersive Prisms

Prism Material Deviation Invert Reverse or Rotate Illustration Applications
Equilateral Prisms F2, N-SF11, Calcium Fluoride,
or Zinc Selenide
Variablea No No  

Dispersion prisms are a substitute for diffraction gratings.

Use to separate white light into visible spectrum.

Dispersion Compensating Prism Pairs Fused Silica, Calcium Fluoride, SF10, or N-SF14 Variable Vertical Offset No No  Dispersion-Compensating Prism Pair

Compensate for pulse broadening effects in ultrafast laser systems.

Can be used as an optical filter, for wavelength tuning, or dispersion compensation.

 

Pellin Broca Prisms N-BK7,
UV Fused Silica,
or Calcium Fluoride
90° 90° No  1

Ideal for wavelength separation of a beam of light, output at 90°.

Used to separate harmonics of a laser or compensate for group velocity dispersion.

  • Depends on Angle of Incidence and Index of Refraction

Beam Manipulating Prisms

Prism Material Deviation Invert Reverse or Rotate Illustration Applications
Anamorphic Prism Pairs N-KZFS8 or
N-SF11
Variable Vertical Offset No No  1

Variable magnification along one axis.

Collimating elliptical beams (e.g., laser diodes)

Converts an elliptical beam into a circular beam by magnifying or contracting the input beam in one axis.

Axicons UV Fused Silica 
or Zinc Selenide
Variablea No No  1

Creates a conical, non-diverging beam with a Bessel intensity profile from a collimated source.

  • Depends on Prism Physical Angle

Polarization Altering Prisms

Prism Material Deviation Invert Reverse or Rotate Illustration Applications
Glan-Taylor, Glan-Laser, and α-BBO Glan-Laser Polarizers Glan-Taylor:
Calcite

Glan-Laser:
α-BBO or Calcite
p-pol. - 0°

s-pol. - 112°a
No No  Glan-Taylor Polarizer

Double prism configuration and birefringent calcite produce extremely pure linearly polarized light.

Total Internal Reflection of s-pol. at the gap between the prism while p-pol. is transmitted.

Rutile Polarizers Rutile (TiO2) s-pol. - 0°

p-pol. absorbed by housing
No No  Rutile Polarizer Diagram

Double prism configuration and birefringent rutile (TiO2) produce extremely pure linearly polarized light.

Total Internal Reflection of p-pol. at the gap between the prisms while s-pol. is transmitted.

 

Double Glan-Taylor Polarizers Calcite p-pol. - 0°

s-pol. absorbed by housing
No No  Glan-Taylor Polarizer

Triple prism configuration and birefringent calcite produce maximum polarized field over a large half angle.

Total Internal Reflection of s-pol. at the gap between the prism while p-pol. is transmitted.

Glan Thompson Polarizers Calcite p-pol. - 0°

s-pol. absorbed by housing
No No  Glan-Thompson Polarizer

Double prism configuration and birefringent calcite produce a polarizer with the widest field of view while maintaining a high extinction ratio.

Total Internal Reflection of s-pol. at the gap between the prism while p-pol. is transmitted.

Wollaston Prisms and
Wollaston Polarizers
Quartz, Magnesium Fluoride, α-BBO, Calcite, Yttrium Orthovanadate Symmetric
p-pol. and
s-pol. deviation angle
No No  Wollaston Prism

Double prism configuration and birefringent calcite produce the widest deviation angle of beam displacing polarizers.

s-pol. and p-pol. deviate symmetrically from the prism. Wollaston prisms are used in spectrometers and polarization analyzers.

Rochon Prisms Magnesium Fluoride
or
Yttrium Orthovanadate
Ordinary Ray: 0°

Extraordinary Ray: deviation angle
No No

Double prism configuration and birefringent MgF2 or YVO4 produce a small deviation angle with a high extinction ratio.

Extraordinary ray deviates from the input beam's optical axis, while ordinary ray does not deviate.

Beam Displacing Prisms Calcite 2.7 or 4.0 mm Beam Displacement No No  Beam Displacing Prism

Single prism configuration and birefringent calcite separate an input beam into two orthogonally polarized output beams.

s-pol. and p-pol. are displaced by 2.7 or 4.0 mm. Beam displacing prisms can be used as polarizing beamsplitters where 90o separation is not possible.

Fresnel Rhomb Retarders N-BK7 Linear to circular polarization

Vertical Offset
No No  Fresnel Rhomb Quarter Wave

λ/4 Fresnel Rhomb Retarder turns a linear input into circularly polarized output.

Uniform λ/4 retardance over a wider wavelength range compared to birefringent wave plates.

Rotates linearly polarized light 90° No No  Fresnel Rhomb Half Wave

λ/2 Fresnel Rhomb Retarder rotates linearly polarized light 90°.

Uniform λ/2 retardance over a wider wavelength range compared to birefringent wave plates.

  • S-polarized light is not pure and contains some P-polarized reflections.

Beamsplitter Prisms

Prism Material Deviation Invert Reverse or Rotate Illustration Applications
Beamsplitter Cubes N-BK7 50:50 splitting ratio, 0° and 90°

s- and p- pol. within 10% of each other
No No  Non-polarizing Beamsplitter

Double prism configuration and dielectric coating provide 50:50 beamsplitting nearly independent of polarization.

Non-polarizing beamsplitter over the specified wavelength range.

Polarizing Beamsplitter Cubes N-BK7, UV Fused Silica, or N-SF1 p-pol. - 0°

s-pol. - 90°
No No  Polarizing Beamsplitter Cube

Double prism configuration and dielectric coating transmit p-pol. light and reflect s-pol. light.

For highest polarization use the transmitted beam.


Posted Comments:
j.p.epping  (posted 2012-04-23 13:50:58.0)
What is the direction of the optical axis with respect to the edges of the prism?
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ADT-6 Support Documentation
ADT-6Rutile Coupling Prism, 45-45-90
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ADG-6 Support Documentation
ADG-6GGG Coupling Prism, 45-45-90
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